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   2015| July-December  | Volume 16 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 23, 2020

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Research instruments
Manoranjitham Sathiyaseelan
July-December 2015, 16(2):57-60
The research instruments are the tools that the researcher uses to collect data. There are different types of instruments based on the structure or format, purpose, nature, and availability. The common types of instruments used in the nursing studies are questionnaires and scales. Instruments are selected based on the research question. The selection of instrument is a very important part of the research process and is lengthy and involving various steps. The credibility of an instrument depends on the validity and reliability. Whether, standardized or developed by the researcher, the validity and reliability has to be established before it is used.
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Effectiveness of subliminal music therapy on improvement of mental wellbeing among PLWHIV
SM Jahir Hussain, Rogina J. S. Savarimuthu
July-December 2015, 16(2):76-80
People living with HIV (PLWHIV) experience severe psychosocial problems. PLWHIV experience depression, bipolar disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and substance abuse. These mental health issues contribute to poor mental wellbeing. The study was conducted at the Community Care Center, Family Planning Association of India (FPAI), Hospital, Madurai. Quantitative pre-experimental research design and purposive sampling technique was utilized in the study. Sixty PLWHIV were included in the study. Instruments consist of demographic variables and the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale. Half (50%) of the study subjects reported below average mental wellbeing in the pre-test which decreased to 33.3% in the post-test. Average and good levels of mental wellbeing in post-test significantly improved following the subliminal music therapy. This reveals that subliminal music therapy can contribute to improved mental wellbeing among PLWHIV. Nurses can administer the subliminal music therapy for PLWHIV to improve their mental wellbeing.
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Caring for a patient with moyamoya disease: A case report
Priscilla R Sam
July-December 2015, 16(2):23-29
Moyamoya disease is a rare cerebrovascular disorder that is characterized by progressive stenosis of distal portion of the internal carotid artery and its main branches. Moyamoya is a Japanese word for a “cloud of smoke” that depicts the appearance of collaterals as occlusion of the blood vessels occur due to stenosis. It mostly affects the younger age group and they develop signs and symptoms of transient ischemic attacks, seizures, infarction, and strokes. In children the disease is characterized by ischemic events compared to adults who develop haemorrhagic manifestations. Diagnosis is based on characteristic arteriographic appearance. Management is not very clear although revascularization techniques are being tried. The effects of multiple strokes in the lives of these individuals have a cumulative load in the quality of life. Therefore nurses have a great role to play in the management of patients during the acute as well as the rehabilitative phases. For a comprehensive understanding of the disease here is an article with the details of the disease such as epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic measures, and the management presented along with a case report focusing on nursing management.
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Burn management: Challenging roles of burn nurses - Part II
Beulah Premkumar, Regina Xavier, Alice S Kumar, Jabin Khaja, Prasanna K Sathiyanathan, Harini Srinivasan, Kalaivani Gnanamani
July-December 2015, 16(2):61-71
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Effectiveness of bibliotherapy for stress reduction among nursing students: An experimental study
Chinchu Zacharias, Dorothy D Theodore
July-December 2015, 16(2):81-84
Stress experienced by nursing students is well documented, and is a result of multi-factorial aspects involving the cognition, emotion, and volition. Stress can adversely affect their performance. Bibliotherapy is found effective in the management of stress. Hence an experimental approach was used to assess the effectiveness of bibliotherapy in the management of stress experienced by nursing students in a selected college of nursing in Bangalore. A sample of 120 students who were randomly selected and assigned to the experimental and control groups participated in the study. The stress was measured using a standardized tool called ‘Student Nurses Stress Index’ which had a reliability score of Cronbach alpha of .7 when used among students in UK. The findings revealed that the groups matched in terms of the pretest stress scores. The independent “t” test was used to assess the effectiveness of bibliotherapy and the t value was 2.70 which was significant at < .05 level of significance. Paired “t” test was also done to assess the effectiveness within the group and it was found to be 2.09 significant at < .05 level of significance. There was no significant association between stress and selected demographical variables. The study implies that nursing students should be encouraged to use bibliotherapy as a means of handling the stress experienced.
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A mixed method research on sleep, fatigue, and quality of life among patients undergoing hemodialysis: A pilot study
T Rohini, Punitha Ezhilarasu
July-December 2015, 16(2):50-56
The aim of the pilot study was to analyze the concepts related to sleep, fatigue, and quality of life (QOL) among patients undergoing hemodialysis and to assess the effect of Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) on their sleep, fatigue, and QOL in a selected hospital at Kerala. The design was an inductive phenomenological concept analysis of three semi structured interviews. The two group pre-test post-test control group design was tested specifically to increase the outcomes in a proposed larger study. Using van Manen’s concept analysis, the concepts related to sleep disturbances, fatigue, and QOL were identified. For the interventional study, group randomization was done to allocate the subjects to experimental and control group. The sample size included 10 in experimental group and 10 in control group. Group CBT was administered for about 40 to 60 minutes to subjects in experimental group for 4 weeks (twice weekly). Post assessment was done at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 10 weeks after the 8th session. Repeated measure ANOVA demonstrated the mean difference for sleep, fatigue, and QOL as significant between the groups (p < .0001***). The results support the need for further investigation of CBT as a method to positively influence the QOL and the commonly experienced symptoms of sleep disorders and fatigue.
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Empowerment of school teachers on adolescent reproductive health education
Jaicy , Vathsala Sadan
July-December 2015, 16(2):13-18
Today’s adolescents determine the social fabric, economic productivity, and reproductive health and wellbeing of nations throughout the world in the coming decades. Adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood. It begins with the appearance of secondary sexual characteristics and continues until sexual maturity is complete. During this period rapid physical changes are accompanied by important psychological changes. Reproductive health is related to adolescent physical, psychological, and social integrity. While considering the settings to address the reproductive health needs and problems of adolescents, schools stand out as one of the important and most utilized settings because through the school we can reach out to almost all adolescents. Teachers can play an important role in this field because children are moving through their crucial time of development and becoming sexually mature while attending school. To do this role effectively, teachers have to be empowered on adolescent reproductive health education. The need for teacher empowerment, its methods, and curriculum are discussed in this article. A model for teacher empowerment is developed based on the teacher education model and is presented. Nurses play a vital role as information providers and trainers in the field.
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Effectiveness of instructional video on preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing orthopedic surgery
Deborah Paripoorani, Valliammal Babu, K Poongodi, Vino M Cherian
July-December 2015, 16(2):36-41
Anxiety is very common among patients undergoing orthopedic surgery. Adequate preoperative information reduces anxiety and enhances quick recovery of patients. Structured surgical orientation video has gained more attention as a mode of education facilitating information provision, possibly anxiolytic, and less costly than many other procedures. A quasi experimental study using a pre-test, post-test control group design was conducted to assess the effectiveness of video instruction about perioperative care on preoperative anxiety of patients undergoing orthopedic surgery in selected orthopedic wards of Christian Medical College, Vellore. Cluster randomization of the wards to the experimental and control group was done and 35 subjects in experimental and 35 in control group were selected by total enumeration technique. An instructional video was developed and validated with content validity index of .85. The intervention was carried out on the day before surgery for experimental group. Anxiety was measured using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory on the day before and after surgery. The post intervention anxiety score was significantly reduced in the experimental group (t = 2.07, p = .05) with a mean difference of 2.23 and increased in control group (t = -6.18, p < .001) with a mean difference of 3.94. There was no significant association between the preoperative anxiety levels and the demographic variables such as age, sex, education, and occupation (p = >.05). The preoperative anxiety of patients if intervened, significant reduction is possible. Structured video teaching is found to reduce anxiety in this study and can be recommended for regular preoperative education of patients undergoing orthopedic surgery.
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Pompe disease: A rare clinical entity
K Kavitha
July-December 2015, 16(2):19-22
Genes control many aspects of the body, including production of important enzymes. Every gene in the body comes as a pair. One copy is passed on by the father and one by the mother. Changes to a normal DNA makeup can result in a defect, also called a mutation in the gene, which can cause the gene to function improperly. In Pompe disease and other similar disorders, a gene mutation causes a deficiency or malfunction of a necessary enzyme. The combination of Glucosidase Acid Alpha (GAA) genes inherited from both parents determines whether a person will be affected by Pompe disease. Although Pompe disease is very rare, it can run in families because it is inherited, meaning that it gets passed on to people through their parents. If someone is diagnosed with the disease, there is a risk that relatives may also have the disease or be carriers. It is particularly important to test siblings of an affected child. Hence genetic counseling plays an important role in care of child and their family members. A brief account of its etiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and management is provided in this article. The nursing management including role of a nurse as a care coordinator is also discussed using exemplars.
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Predictors of anxiety and depression among postmenopausal women
Nisha Mathew, Alice Sony, Rachel Chandy
July-December 2015, 16(2):30-35
The concept of quality of life among postmenopausal women is a growing concern among health care professionals. A quantitative approach with descriptive design was undertaken to assess the predictors of anxiety and depression among postmenopausal women which have a negative effect on quality of life. A total of 200 postmenopausal women were selected using convenience sampling technique. Data were collected using Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The findings revealed that most of the subjects had anxiety (63%) and depression (52.5%). The predictors of anxiety and depression were found to be age, education, occupation, marital status, number of children, age at menarche, age at menopause, and duration of menopause. It necessitates the need to educate postmenopausal women and also that the challenging needs of these women be addressed and attended to.
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Effectiveness of structured educational intervention on knowledge, attitude, and practice of self-management strategies among people with epilepsy
Ophelia M Kharmujai, Rajeshwari Siva, Shandrila Immanuel, Maya M Thomas
July-December 2015, 16(2):42-49
In India, the prevalence of epilepsy is about 5.35/1000 and in Vellore it is 3.83/1000. People with epilepsy often have inadequate knowledge of the causes of epilepsy. Educational interventions have been associated with improvements in knowledge, seizure outcomes and coping among people with epilepsy. The main objective of the study was to assess and compare the knowledge, attitude and practice on self-management strategies among people with epilepsy before and after the structured educational intervention. A quasi-experimental study design was used to interview 52 people with epilepsy on self-management strategies of epilepsy with a semi-structured questionnaire and an attitude scale before and after a structured educational intervention using multimedia presentation. A booklet on self-management strategies was also given to the study subjects. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The pre-test knowledge of self-management strategies of all people with epilepsy in the study is inadequate compared to 51(98.1%) in the post-test. In the pre-test, 15 (28.8%) people with epilepsy had favourable attitude compared to 18 (34.6%) in the post-test and 30(57.7%) people with epilepsy in the pre-test had adequate practice compared to 40 (76.9%) in the post-test. There were statistically significant increase in knowledge (p<0.001), attitude (p<0.001), and practice scores (p<0.001).There were significant association between post-test attitude with place of treatment (p<0.001), pre-test and post-test practice with place of treatment (p<0.001) and with regularity of treatment (p<0.05). People with epilepsy need to be empowered with more knowledge and skill to have good seizure control.
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Challenges in Caring for a Burn Survivor
Neethu Thomas, Nirmala M Emmanuel
July-December 2015, 16(2):72-75
Burns whether small or big, leaves a patient with increased nursing care demands to resume the normal or optimal living. Acute phase of burn provides more challenges regarding the physical care where as the rehabilitative phase requires more of psychological and social care. Throughout the period of recovery both in acute and rehabilitative phase a nurse needs to focus on the various dimensions of care such as physical, mental, social, and spiritual aspects to ensure a complete recovery of a patient with burns. This article presents the various challenges in caring for a burn survivor based on the nursing care demands such as physical, mental, and social health care needs and the nurses’ role in meeting these demands.
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