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Table of Contents
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 23  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 44-48

Analysis of academic performance, study behaviour and factors influencing study behaviour among nursing students


1 Professor, Shri G H Patel College of Nursing, Bhaikaka University, India
2 Psychologist, Pramukhswami Medical College, Bhaikaka University, India

Date of Submission25-Mar-2021
Date of Decision23-Mar-2022
Date of Acceptance28-Mar-2022
Date of Web Publication28-Apr-2022

Correspondence Address:
Prof. Shany Thomas
H M Patel Centre for Medical Care and Education, Gokal Nagar, Karamsad, Anand - 388 325, Gujarat
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijcn.ijcn_24_21

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  Abstract 

Every student is distinctive and uniquely learns things. There are numerous factors, which may encourage or hamper the students' learning style and intellectual performance. These factors must be addressed with due significance to ease learning. The study is designed to look at the academic performance, study behaviour and factors influencing study behaviour among nursing students. A cross-sectional survey was carried out among 223 basic BSc nursing students. Instruments used for data collection were demographic pro forma, checklist on factors influencing study behaviour, study behaviour inventory by Bliss and University result sheet. Academic performance revealed that 52.9% of students scored between 70% and 79.9% regarded as first class. Majority (70.9%) of the participants demonstrated a moderate level of study behaviour (mean-107.3, standard deviation-13.3). Learning environment, personal factors, interest, attention, learning behaviour, language, home-related factors and time management were the extracted components influencing study behaviour. Among the factors, 'absenteeism', 'getting disturbed by siblings/friends during study hours', 'feeling to take time off from college frequently' and 'doing assignments regularly' were significantly associated with study behaviour. Ability to make lecture notes (χ2-12.39, Sig.− 0.05, P < 0.05), utilisation of learning facilities (χ2-9.35, Significance − 0.025, P < 0.05) and satisfaction with learning facilities provided (χ2-13.62, Significance − 0.034, P < 0.05) were significantly associated with academic performance. The findings of the study exposed some of the factors, as perceived by the students, influencing the study behaviour and academic performance. Understanding these factors will help the faculty to come up with a strategy to enhance the students' overall performance.

Keywords: Academic performance, nursing students, study behaviour


How to cite this article:
Thomas S, Mahida A. Analysis of academic performance, study behaviour and factors influencing study behaviour among nursing students. Indian J Cont Nsg Edn 2022;23:44-8

How to cite this URL:
Thomas S, Mahida A. Analysis of academic performance, study behaviour and factors influencing study behaviour among nursing students. Indian J Cont Nsg Edn [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Aug 16];23:44-8. Available from: https://www.ijcne.org/text.asp?2022/23/1/44/344274




  Introduction Top


Choosing a profession is presumably an intricate choice for many students, especially if one of the thoughts is nursing. Of course, it is a rewarding and satisfying profession for the majority who enter the field, but it is in no way an effortless one.

A good number of students enter the nursing profession just because of its wide scope or as a means to travel abroad. Many of the time, they have no idea how vigorous training they need to undergo both in the classroom and in the clinical setting to become a graduate nurse. The transition period from school to nursing education is very critical as the students' expectations about college life and what they experience in real maybe two extremes. Starting with language, discipline, to the controlled settings where they learn is a new experience and is beyond their expectations. Such unexpected situations may tend the students to lose their interest in studies, build up stress, and eventually, they may develop an extreme dislike to the profession which ultimately results in inept nurses.

Every student is distinctive and learns things in their unique fashion. There are many factors, which may encourage or hamper the students learning style and intellectual performance. Accordingly, as a way to ease learning, it is fundamental to address those factors with due significance. One of the studies from Karnataka identified that the environment in which students learn, support from administrative staff, quality of teaching staff, stimulating lectures and distinctive personal characteristics impel the students' learning.[1] Similarly a study conducted in South Africa revealed the involvement of parents in education, ideal interaction between nursing tutors and students, the use of appropriate technology and gadgets and suitable learning facilities were evident as factors encouraging the academic efficacy of students. Contrarily, the condition of the family, English medium for instructions in addition to unconstructive colleagues impacts were reasons for weak scholastic performance.[2]

A compassionate and encouraging learning atmosphere remold teacher–student rapport into a joint venture that ensures students' satisfaction and optimum academic performance.[3] Peer and professional mentoring makes the students realize that there is someone concerned about them, comforts them that they are not unaided in dealing with habitual challenges. Researches proved that good mentoring relationships have influential effects on students in a range of personal, academic and professional circumstances.[4]

Considering the above-cited studies it is explicit that several factors can impact the students' academic performance. Very few studies have been done among nursing students in India to address the real-life problems that influence their study behaviour and overall academic performance. Hence, the study was carried out to recognise the factors influencing study behaviour and academic performance of nursing students to develop a structured mentorship programme.


  Methods Top


A cross-sectional study was carried out among 223 Basic BSc nursing students during the academic year 2018–2019 from selected nursing colleges of Anand district. Basic BSc nursing students, males and females, studying in the 1st year, 2nd year and 3rd year, who have appeared for the university examination in the year 2019 were recruited for the study.

The instrument used for data collection consisted of three sections, namely demographic pro forma, study behaviour inventory (SBI), checklist for factors influencing study behaviour, and University Result sheet. SBI is a standardised tool by Bliss and Muller[5] translated to Gujarati and validated by language experts. Internal consistency reliability estimates for the entire instrument ranged from 0.70 to 0.88, suggesting that the SBI is a valid and reliable instrument for assessing study behaviour. The SBI had an aggregate of 38 items on a rating scale with options (4) always, (3) often, (2) sometimes and (1) never. Study behaviour inventory was sorted into three domains, namely feeling of Academic self-adequacy, Time management for preparing for routine, short-term academic tasks and time management for preparing specific, long-range academic tasks, projected by 14, 16 and 8 items correspondingly. For the feeling of academic self-efficacy, the least score is 14, and 56 is the greatest score. A score under 28 is regarded as poor; a range of 28–42 is taken as a moderate level and above 42 is evaluated as a good level of academic self-efficacy. In the same manner, management of time for routine, recurring tasks, the least score is 16, and the greatest score is 64. A score below 32 is interpreted as a poor score on the component, while 32–48 is considered a moderate level and a score of 48 and above is considered as good. Besides, management of long-term specific, nonrecurring tasks, the minimum possible score is 8 and the greatest score is 32. A score below 16 is considered poor and a score in the range of 16–24 is considered moderate and any score above 24 is considered as good.[6] The checklist to assess factors influencing study behaviour had 28 items categorised under seven domains; personal factors, classroom performance, language, absenteeism, learning environment, home-/hostel-based factors and teacher-related factors, developed by the investigators based on the review of the literature.[1],[2],[7],[8] The content validity was obtained from professionals in the field of education.

Academic performance was determined by analysing the University result sheet of 2019 following the university grading criteria. A score of 80% and above is considered first class with distinction, the score of 70%–79.9% is considered first-class, the score of 60%–69.9% is considered second class, the score of 50%–59.9% is considered as pass and score below 50% is considered as allowed to keep terms.

A pilot study was carried out among 20 4th-year BSc nursing students to check the feasibility. The reliability of the checklist on factors influencing study behaviour was established by the Cronbach Alpha equation (r = 0.8).

The data were collected by the investigator between August and November 2019. The instruments for data collection; demographic pro forma, checklist for factors influencing study behaviour, and SBI was administered to the participants and were filled in front of the investigator.

Ethical considerations

Institutional ethical committee clearance was obtained (IEC/HMPCMCE/126/2019). The participant information sheet was distributed and signed informed consent was taken before administering the tool. Ensured confidentiality by maintaining the anonymity of participants'name/institution/University details.

Statistical analysis

Participants' background information, study behaviour and academic performance were expressed using descriptive statistics. Principal component analysis and non-orthogonal rotated component matrix were done to extract and categorise the factors, which influenced study behaviour as perceived by the learners. Factors that have Eigenvalues greater than one were extracted.[9] Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) value was used to measure the sampling adequacy for each variable.


  Results Top


[Table 1] summarises the participant characteristics. Three categories such as monthly family income, the reason for selecting the course, and time spent on travelling were excluded from the list as more than 20% of the participants did not respond.{Table 1}

Amongst 223 participants, 67.6% were in the age group of 18–20 years, most of them were females (80.7%), 36.3% of the participants were studying in 1st year BSc Nursing, and 65.9% of the participants were staying at their own home. The majority of participants' parents (father-50.7% and mother 68.6%) had education up to 12th grade.

Academic performance

Based on the university examination result, the academic performance was summarised [Table 2].{Table 2}

The findings show that the majority of the students' (52.9%) score falls under the percentage 70%–79.9% which is considered first-class as per the university guidelines.

Factors influencing study behaviour

The factor analysis was done for recognising the core factors influencing the study behaviour of nursing students. Bartlett's test of sphericity value (χ2-1487.459, Significance 0.00, P < 0.001) and KMO test value (0.711, >0.50) specify that factor analysis is suitable for further data analysis. The scree plot [Figure 1] shows that eight factors determined the majority of variability and the line flattened after that.{Figure 1}

Amongst 28 factors listed, 4 factors did not load on any component, hence eliminated. The reliability of Cronbach's Alpha was 0.675 and after deleting 4 items Cronbach's Alpha score was >0.701. Extracted eight components [Table 3] had five factors loading on component 1 which is named as learning environment as it has factors related to learning facilities and teaching, five factors loading on component 2 which is named as personal factors, three factors loading on component 3 named as absenteeism, two factors loading on component 4 named as attention, three factors loading on component 5 named as self-learning, two factors loading on component 6 named as language, three factors loading on component 7 named as home-related factors and one factor loading on component 8 named as time management.{Table 3}

Study behaviour of BSc nursing students

The present study revealed [Table 4] that majority of the participants had moderate levels of Academic self-efficacy (mean-41.6, standard deviation [SD]-5.3), management of time for routine, recurring tasks (mean-43, SD-6.8) and management of long-term specific, non-recurring task (mean-22.7, SD-4.1).{Table 4}

Relationship between factors influencing study behaviour and study behaviour of BSc nursing students

Amongst 24 factors extracted, factor 12-'absenteeism', factor 23-'getting disturbed by siblings/friends during study hours', factor 11-'feeling to take time off from college frequently' and factor 21-'doing assignments regularly' were significantly associated with study behaviour of BSc nursing students [Table 5].{Table 5}

Association between academic performance and factors influencing study behaviour

Ability to make lecture notes (χ2-12.39, Significance − 0.05, P < 0.05), utilisation of learning facilities (χ2-9.35, Significance − 0.025, P < 0.05) and satisfaction with learning facilities provided (χ2-13.62, Significance − 0.034, P < 0.05) was significantly associated with academic performance.


  Discussion Top


In the study, the majority of the participants were female nursing students (80.7%). The findings were in agreement with a previous study by Khatun et al.,[7] where 97.6% of participants were female student nurses. Concerning the year of study, (36.3%) of the participants were 1st-year nursing students while the results of a previous study by Magerman[10] had 74.43% of the participants from 1st-year nursing. Based on university examination performance, the academic performance was decided which shows that majority of the participants (52.9%) had a score between 70% and 79.9% which is considered first class as per the university guidelines.

The results of the study found that majority of the participants had moderate levels of study behaviour in terms of academic self-efficacy (mean-41.6, SD-5.3), management of time for routine, recurring tasks (mean-43, SD-6.8) and management of long-term specific nonrecurring task (mean-22.7, SD-4.1). The finding was in contrast to the findings of a previous study by Devi and Woldetsadik[6] where the majority of the students were found to have an appropriate level of study behaviour.

Factors such as 'feeling to take time off from college frequently, 'absenteeism', 'feeling to take time off from college', 'disturbance from siblings/friends during study hours' and 'doing assignments regularly' were identified to be influencing the study behaviour of BSc nursing students. The ability to make lecture notes, utilisation of learning facilities and satisfaction with the learning facilities provided were significantly associated with academic performance. The identified factors were comparable to that factors identified in a previous study[1] where factors such as the environment in which students learn, support from administrative staff, quality of teaching staff, stimulating lectures and distinctive personal characteristics impel the students' learning. Elsabagh et al.,[7] identified personal factors, school-related and teacher-related factors having a high impact on academic achievement. In the study by Dube and Mlotshwa,[2] 77% of the respondents agreed that learning facilities supported their academic achievement.

Limitations

The study was conducted among selected nursing colleges of Anand District, Gujarat, involving only 223 participants chosen through convenient sampling. Second, a qualitative inquiry would have provided rich information about the factors influencing students' study behaviour.


  Conclusion Top


This study has provided and highlighted several helpful findings concerning various factors influencing study behaviour and academic performance of nursing students. The faculty and the mentors should have a detailed understanding of various factors, which the nursing students perceived as influencing their study behaviour and academic performance. Periodic review of students' performance and personal interaction with the students will help the faculty to come up with a strategy that will enhance the students' overall performance. A structured mentorship programme can be implicated by considering the finding of the study by focussing on the overall development of the students. The findings of the study also highlighted the importance of a conducive learning environment and its appropriate utilisation in students' academic performance. It should be taken into account during curriculum planning.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
George LS, Lakra AJ, Kamath A. Factors affecting learning among undergraduate nursing students: Cross-sectional survey. JCDR 2017;11:JC01-4.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Dube MB, Mlotshwa PR. Factors influencing enrolled nursing students' academic performance at a selected private nursing education institution in KwaZulu-Natal. Curationis 2018;41:e1-7.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Del Prato D, Bankert E, Grust P, Joseph J. Transforming nursing education: A review of stressors and strategies that support students' professional socialization. Adv Med Educ Pract 2011;2:109-16.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
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Herrera C, Grossman JB, Kauh TJ, McMaken J. Mentoring in schools: An impact study of big brothers big sisters school-based mentoring. Child Dev 2011;82:346-61.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Bliss LB, Mueller RJ. An instrument for the assessment of study behaviors of college students. Lit Res Instr 1993;32:46-52.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Devi PN, Woldetsadik LC. Gender difference in study behaviour among university students in Ethiopia. Natl Mon Refereed J Res Arts Educ 2013;2:37-46.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Elsabagh EM, Elsayed EK, Elsabagh MI, El-Hefnawy A. Factors affecting the academic performance among female nursing students. Int J Curr Res 2017;9:46914-20.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Khatun TM, Khatun F, Akter MK. Factor's related to academic performance among undergraduate nursing students in Bangladesh. Nurs Health Sci 2020;9:14-23.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Yong AG, Pearce S. A beginner's guide to factor analysis: Focusing on exploratory factor analysis. Tutor Quant Methods Psychol 2013;9:79-94.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Magerman YN. Academic factors affecting learning at a nursing college in the Western Cape (Doctoral Dissertation, Stellenbosch: University of Stellenbosch); 2011. Available from: https://scholar.sun.ac.za/ handle/10019.1/6648. [Last accessed on 2020 Mar 14].  Back to cited text no. 10
    




 

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