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Table of Contents
ARTICLE
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 19  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 58-72

Disaster management - introduction, community preparedness and response and role of a public health nurse


1 Professor, College of Nursing, CMC, Vellore, India
2 Lecturer, College of Nursing, CMC, Vellore, India

Date of Web Publication5-Jun-2020

Correspondence Address:
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


Rights and PermissionsRights and Permissions
  Abstract 


Numerous disaster events and threats in the 21st century has increased the emphasis on disaster nursing and those principles that guide the nurse’s practice in response to disasters. A global nursing workforce is needed that possesses the knowledge, skills, and abilities to respond to any disaster or large-scale public health emergency in a timely and appropriate manner. This paper highlights the need for preparedness and response in times of disaster from a community and public nursing perspective.

Keywords: disaster management, preparedness, response


How to cite this article:
Siva R, Prema. Disaster management - introduction, community preparedness and response and role of a public health nurse. Indian J Cont Nsg Edn 2018;19:58-72

How to cite this URL:
Siva R, Prema. Disaster management - introduction, community preparedness and response and role of a public health nurse. Indian J Cont Nsg Edn [serial online] 2018 [cited 2022 Aug 16];19:58-72. Available from: https://www.ijcne.org/text.asp?2018/19/2/58/286091






  Introduction Top


Disaster is a sudden, calamitous event bringing great damage, loss, destruction and devastation to life and property. In the words of Waeckerle (1991), “we do not expect disasters, but they happen”. With living come natural calamities; with industry and technologic advances come accidents; with socioeconomic and political stagnation or changes come dissatisfaction, terrorism, and war. The damage caused by disasters is immeasurable and varies with the geographical location, climate and the type of earth surface / degree of vulnerability. This influences the mental, socio-economic, political and cultural state of the affected area. A disaster completely disrupts normal day to day life and negatively influences the emergency systems and normal needs and processes like food, shelter, health etc. The aftermath of disaster depends on intensity and severity of the disaster.


  Definitions Top


The Emergency Events Database of International Disasters (EM- DAT) defines disaster as “A situation or event which overwhelms local capacity, necessitating a request to a national or international level for external assistance; an unforeseen and often sudden event that causes great damage, destruction and human suffering”. According to EM- DAT the following criteria if fulfilled in an event, can be called disaster:

  • 10 ormorepeoplereportedkilledand/or
  • 100 or more people reported affected and/or
  • Call for international assistance /state of emergency is declared (EM- DAT, 2009a)


It is also defined as “A serious disruption of the functioning of a community or a society causing widespread human, material, economic or environmental losses which exceed the ability of the affected community or society to cope using its own resources” (United National International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction, 2009). Thus, a disaster may have the following main features :

  • Unpredictability
  • Unfamiliarity
  • Speed
  • Urgency
  • Uncertainty
  • Threat


In simple terms disaster is a hazard causing heavy loss to life, properly and livelihood. For example, a cyclone killing 10,000 people and a crop loss of one crore can be termed as a disaster. A disaster happens when there is a combination of vulnerability (weakness), hazard (threatening event) and lack of resources and capacity to reduce the risk (Khan et al., 2008) (see [Figure 1].
Figure 1: Disaster (Source: Khan, Vasilescu, % Khan, 2008)

Click here to view


Types of Disaster

Disaster can simply be classified as Natural and Manmade. The classification given by EM- DAT is widely used currently to understand the type of disaster (EM-DAT, 2009b). The types of natural disasters are given in [Figure 2].
Figure 2: Types of Natural Disasters (Source: EM DAT,2009)

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Technological or man-made hazards (complex emergencies/conflicts, famine, displaced populations, industrial accidents and transport accidents) are events that are caused by humans and occur in or close to human settlements. This can include environmental degradation, pollution and accidents (EM-DAT) building collapse, oil spills and mine flooding (National Disaster Management Authority, 2009). Disasters may also be classified based on onset, impact and duration. Examples of sudden onset, short duration disaster with high impact on individuals and communities include earthquakes or bioterrorism events. However disasters such as drought and famine (creeping disasters) are gradual in onset and have a longstanding effect (Veenema,2019).


  Levels of Disaster Top


Disasters may also be classified as levels. The level considers vulnerability of the affected area and the capacity of authorities to manage the situation (High Power Committee on Disaster Management, 1999.

Level -L0: Period ofNormalcy.

Level-Ll: The level of disaster that can be managed within the capabilities and resources at the District level. However, the State authorities will remain in readiness to provide assistance if needed.

e.g., train accident due to derailment where 36 passengers died, 2017 near Visakhapatnam, India

Level-L2: This signifies disaster situations that require assistance and active mobilization of resources at the State level and deployment of State level agencies for disaster management. The Central agencies must remain vigilant for immediate deployment if required by the State.

Level-L3: This corresponds to a nearly catastrophic situation or a very large-scale disaster that overwhelms the State and District authorities.

e.g., Kerala floods, August 2018


  Effects of Disaster Top


Whether natural or manmade, sudden or gradual, disasters have devastating effects on individuals and communities. The morbidity and mortality resulting from a disastrous event depends on many factors such as type, intensity and timing of the event, the environmental condition, the distribution and characteristics of population, the preparedness of the vulnerable group and the availability of resources. The effects also depend on whether it was a predictable type of disaster (e.g., cyclone) or an unpredictable sudden event (e.g., earth quake) (Park & Park, 2015). The impact of a disaster can have varying effects on the health status of individuals and community (March, 2002; Veenema,2019).

  • Trauma and injuries are one of the immediate effects that may vary in nature according to the type of disaster (e.g., crush injuries in earth quakes, cuts, lacerations, puncture and blunt injuries in tornadoes, inhalation injury and burn in fires)
  • Dehydration, malnutrition and vitamin deficiencies in conditions where there is heat wave, drought and famine
  • Hypothermia due to prolonged exposure
  • Communicable diseases, infections due to contamination of water source, break in sewer systems
  • Potential heart attacks, arrhythmias, allergies and asthma due to stress reactions and exposure to debris
  • Stress related emotional distress, fear, anxiety, post- traumatic stress disorder, general anxiety disorder
  • Disruption/destruction of health infrastructure and resources especially the hospital which can delay emergency and relief activities
  • Sanitation and privacy issues in shelters leading to psychological distress as well as diseases/infections
  • Loneliness and depression due to loss of familiar support group (either in the disaster or due to separation in shelters)


Other effects of disaster include loss of property, livestock, pets, damage to buildings and goods, loss of vital documents, displacement, and migration. To prevent and mitigate the effects of disaster on a community, effective disaster management plan have to be in place in every community. Disaster management can be effectively carried out if an appropriate disaster management framework is used.


  Disaster Management Top


The Disaster Management Act of India, defines disaster management as a continuous and integrated process of planning, organizing, coordinating and implementing measures which are necessary or expedient for :

  • Prevention of danger or threat of any disaster
  • Mitigation or reduction of risk of any disaster or its severity or consequences
  • Capacity-building
  • Preparedness to deal with any disaster
  • Prompt response to any threatening disaster situation or disaster
  • Assessing the seventy or magnitude of effects of any disaster
  • Evacuation, rescue and relief
  • Rehabilitation and reconstruction (Ministry of Home Affairs, 2005)


The concepts of disaster management in the above Act is reiterated in the disaster management cycle (2017) purported by the Disaster management Department of the Municipal corporation of Greater Mumbai, India (2016) [see Figure 3].
Figure 3: Disaster Management Cycle (Source Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai,2017)

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The major two phases of disaster management are the risk management phase and the crisis management phase (Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, 2017). Where crisis management is initiated and continued after a disaster strikes, the risk reduction has been the focus of disaster management strategies of the United Nations in the recent years and involves an ongoing effort in prevention and preparedness. The goal of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk reduction 2015-2030 (United National International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction, 2009) adopted by UN member countries in 2015, is for the nations to take active measures to reduce existing risk, prevent new risks for disaster, reduce hazard vulnerability and promote resilience through preparedness and capacity building.


  I. Risk Reduction Phase Top


1. Prevention

It involves hazard identification and risk analysis to know the types of disaster that can strike an area, the vulnerable group that can be affected and the probable effects.

e.g., public awareness and education, environmental scanning.

2.Mitigation

It is an action taken to reduce the harmful effects of the disaster on human health, property and protection of vulnerable population.

e.g., mock drills on disaster management, building codes and zoning.

3. Preparedness

The preparedness activities involve efforts taken at every level to design a structure for disaster response before it occurs.

e.g., emergency response plan, communication plan, preparing disaster teams, preparing resources such food, clothing, and shelter.


  II. Crisis Management Phase Top


1. Response

It includes action taken to save lives and prevent further damage.

e.g., triage, medical care, evacuation, transportation.

2. Recovery

It is the action taken to return to normal or even safer situation.

e.g., surveillance for diseases, medical aid, psychological support, temporary housing.

3. Rehabilitation

It involves reconstruction of damaged physical and psychological infrastructure, as well as economic and social rehabilitation of the people in the affected region (National Disaster Management Plan [NDMA], 2016).

Rehabilitation is classified into the following:

  • Physical
  • Social
  • Economic and
  • Psychological


e.g., rebuilding houses, roads, revival of educational activities, regular counseling, restoring employment.

4. Development

It involves promotion of sustainable livelihoods and greater capacity to deal with disasters with the recovery that is long lasting. Development also involves overall plan to build resilience of community and mitigating hazards and vulnerability.

e.g., change of job or reestablishing lost livelihood, ongoing economic and social support, skill training, development of disaster teams.


  Community Preparedness to Disaster Top


“Disaster preparedness refers to measures taken to prepare for and reduce the effects of disasters. That is, to predict and, where possible, prevent disasters, mitigate their impact on vulnerable populations, and respond to and effectively cope with their consequences” (The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies [IFRCRCS], 2017). When disasters do not happen often, communities are seldom prepared to act during disasters. Disastrous effects can result when a community is unprepared for the challenge of a disaster. Preparing a community to prevent and mitigate disasters has been recognized as the most effective way of dealing with disasters. Carefully designed community based disaster plans help in minimizing effects of disaster on man and material.

1. Hazard, Vulnerability, and Risk Assessment

Community preparedness starts with identifying hazards and vulnerability in a community (IFRCRCS, 2017). Hazard is a situation or an event that can bring harm to the people living in community. The history of hazards such as floods, earth quake or land slide or endemic infections etc. should be collected to understand and identify potential hazards that can happen in a specific community. Information on how often the hazard happens, what are the potential causes and what type of damage had they brought to the community will be useful to make an effective community preparedness plan. It is also vital to know who and what will be most affected by a hazard (vulnerability). For example people who live near a river bank or coastal line may be the most vulnerable to flooding. In all disasters, special group such as children and older adults are the most vulnerable to the effects of a disaster. Vulnerability is also determined by assessing the capacity of the community to deal with a disaster.

From the findings of the assessment of hazard and vulnerability the risk of a community to a disaster is measured. The objectives of risk assessment according to IFRCRCS (2017) include:

  • Determining a community’s risk for adverse health effects due to a disaster
  • Identifying the potential and actual causes/ sources of hazards and disasters
  • Identifying the vulnerable group who may be most affected
  • Understanding the existing resources and infrastructure that can reduce the impact of disaster
  • Determining the areas that need strengthening to mitigate effects of disaster


2. Preparation of Community Profile

A community profile document is a useful set of data that will provide comprehensive information on the potential effect of disaster on the community population.

a. Population Characteristics

This includes total number of families, population (approx.), male population, female population, children and people with disability.

b. Physical Characteristics

The includes information of area, prominent land use, soil type, and land holding pattern.

c. Housing Typology

This includes type of housing, mode of construction etc.

d. Economic Characteristics

This includes major income group and type of prominent economic activity under which community people are engaged.

3. Resource Inventory and Resource Mapping

As capacity to mitigate or respond to disaster depends on the physical, social, economic and institutional resources available, a thorough inventory and mapping of the resources is mandated as part of community preparedness (IFRCRCS, 2017). The inventory should be updated periodically and regularly.

a. Physical Spaces and Open Facilities

Identify areas like parks, sports complexes, parking spaces, community halls, schools and colleges which can be used as meeting places, temporary shelters, helicopter landing and safe routes before or after disaster strikes.

b. Medical Facilities

Take count of number of hospitals, clinics, dispensaries, equipment and trained manpower for medical assistance. Note addresses and map routes which are short and safe for easy accessibility in times of need.

c. Communication Facilities

Check availability of radios, televisions, telephone exchange, mobiles, public telephone services etc. Have a list of emergency contact phone numbers available at different locations to enable quick and precise communication. Ensure accessibility to back up power supply.

d. Transportation Facilities

Determine facilities for transport such as buses, tempos, cars, trucks, taxies, three wheelers and two wheelers and maps of different routes.

e. Water Facilities

Facilities such as water storage tanks, overhead tanks, bore wells, hand pump, community water posts, government or private tankers, source of bottled water and tube wells etc. Water purifiers and chlorine tablets may also be required (Basu, Ghosh, Jana, Bandyopadhyay, & Singh, 2017).

e. Electric Energy Systems

It is important to know where power stations, sub stations are situated and have an inventory of other alternate energy supplies such as flash lights, generators, gas burner and power banks.

f. Sanitation Facilities

Identify existing public toilets, community bathrooms, solid waste disposal sites and cremation sites as well as alternate sites for such facilities.

g. Search and Rescue Operation Facilities

Identify and list facilities available for rescue operation such as kerosene depots, cooking gas depot etc. for food and supply purpose and JCB, crane, Cutters, Bulldozers, Ropes, lamps and ladder etc. for rescues.

4. Capacity Building

Capacity building starts with identifying organizational and human resources who will be able to respond effectively in times of disaster. Medical care facilities, although are the most needed resource during disaster, cannot function in isolation without the support of medical personnel and other organizational groups in the communities at the time of disaster. The type of disaster also determines the type of human resource capacity needed. In the heroic phase of an earthquake (rescue, relief) medical professionals were most needed to provide relief (Basu, et al., 2017). Youth groups, sporting groups, members of clubs and communities and educationistscan be vital source of support during the preparation, rescue and recovery phases. Yadav and Barve (2014) describe the following seven elements of capacity building for disaster.

1

a. Education on Disaster Prevention and Response

It includes educating the people in the community on the potential hazards and risks and effects that a disaster could produce. Education also covers strategies that could be adopted to prevent or mitigate hazards and how to respond in case of a disaster.

b. Disaster Management Training

It involves training of selected groups of community members and volunteers on how to respond and survive during disasters and to help others.

c. Collaboration with Relief Agencies

This element of capacity building involves bringing collaboration between government and non-governmental agencies, organizations involved in relief work such as Indian Red Cross Society (IRCS), fire services, civil defense, panchayat members and local volunteers groups.

d. Mock Drills

Mock drills are simulation exercises which are periodically carried out along with training to ensure community members and relief workers have practice to respond appropriately in disasters. The core of the simulation exercise will be based on the type of disaster that the community is most likely to have.

e. Household Preparation

It covers the preparation that each family should have and communicate to all its members. It includes keeping all valuable items in water proof covers and preparing and storing essential items such as drinking water, non-perishable food, light source, minimum clothes ect. Family members should also have evacuation plans in the event of disaster.

f. Understanding Warning and De-Warning Signs

Stakeholders should be involved in disseminating warning signs and the community should be consistently taught about warning signs and the importance of adhering to the warnings.

g. First aid and Emergency Medical Supplies

A community needs to have first aid and emergency supplies to provide immediate treatment and relief during disasters. The supplies should be available in strategic places like community centers, educational buildings and potential relief centers. The supplies need to be audited and replenished to ensure availability when needed. Disaster management training to volunteers or task force group should involve training in first aid also.


  Community Response to Disaster Top


Disaster response is defined as “an aggregate of decisions and measures taken to (1) contain or mitigate the effects of a disastrous event to prevent any further loss of life and/or property, (2) restore order in its immediate aftermath, and (3) re-establish normality through reconstruction and rehabilitation shortly thereafter. The first and immediate response is called emergency response”. Very importantly it involves meeting the basic needs of humans and animals in the aftermath of disaster (National Disaster Management Authority, 2016). The focus of the response is to rescue those who are affected or who may be affected by the disaster event. The response phase starts from the time the threat of event is announced till the disaster is declared over.

1. Emergency Response

The emergency community response includes assisting/organizing search, extrication and evacuation activities. Disaster victims should be helped to move from unsafe areas or removed from hazardous area with appropriate and skilled assistance. Health and first aid needs of injured victims should be attended to immediately. The disaster evacuation plan should be followed for best results.

2. Triaging

Triaging immediately follows the rescue phase. The victims have to be quickly assessed for severity ofinjury and potential for survival. With Simple Triaging and Rapid Treatment (START) method, colour coded tags are used to decide priority of attention and treatment (see Figure 3). First aid is provided as necessary and victims are transported to health centers. Victims who are not injured are moved to temporary shelters.

3. Facilitating Transport

The post rescue measures also involves making appropriate arrangements for transport of survivors, wounded and seriously injured to temporary shelters, safety or to health care facilities. The injured are transported based on the priority. A coordinated effort is needed to arrange for transport based on the type of disasters (rescue helicopters with army, fire engines, ladders with fire department, motor vehicles and buses or boats with local and government facilities).
Figure 3: START Triage (Source: U.S Department of Health and Human Services,2018)

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4. Shelter Care and Distribution of Relief Material

Community response also involves ensuring provision of temporary shelters for the victims for both people and livestock. The disaster preparedness plan is used to decide on appropriate shelters for those who are affected for safe and secure living. Upon provision of shelters the community members also are involved in providing arrangements for water supply, sanitation, kitchens, fodder for animals, medical services and first aid, counseling and support, information services etc. (Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, 2018a).

5. Disease Surveillance and Mass Health Education

As communicable diseases, infection and syndromes are common occurrences in the aftermath of disaster, screening, prevention and education activities are important to mitigate the effect of disaster. Vulnerable population such as children, older adults, vision and hearing impaired, people with cognitive impairment have to be paid special attention during disaster (NDMP, 2016).

6. Restoration and Rehabilitation

Restoration starts with a detailed damage and needs assessment in the post disaster phase (Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai, 2018a). It includes verifying the number of human lives saved or lost, structural damage to property and places, infrastructure facilities that are available/lost, livestock, resources available and the impending physical, psychological, and social needs of the disaster victims.

Based on the assessment rehabilitation activities are initiated or sought out by the community to restore normalcy and pre disaster life style. Comprehensive plans for economic, psychological and social rehabilitation may have to be formulated with the help of the community leaders and the State Government. Most importantly a community based disaster management plan has to initiated if not available and if already available, ongoing monitoring and evaluation of such plans should be mandated (Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai,2018b).


  Public Health Nurses Role in Community Preparedness and Response Top


With their population- based skills and people knowledge, public health nurses have unique role to respond in times of disaster. Public health nurses work at the individual, family, community and administrative levels to promote health and wellbeing and prevent illness with an ultimate goal to have healthy communities. Their knowledge and skill on epidemiology, determinants of health, community mapping, risk assessment, disease surveillance, community resources, health teaching, mass education and their influence on the people in the community place them in an effective and advantageous position in disaster management. An experienced public health nurse also has an intimate knowledge of how people in her community will respond to a crisis and what resources they may use or benefit from and also their capacity and resilience. Therefore the role of a public health nurse in all phases of disaster is multifold (Association of Public Health Nurses [APHN], 2014). The role of a public health nurse in all phases of disaster in terms of nursing process is excellently depicted by American APHN (see Table 1).
Table 1: The Disaster Cycle linked to the Nursing Process

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  Conclusion Top


Disasters lead to resource depletion, stress on economy and livelihood and trauma associated physical and psychological effects on individuals and community. Community disaster preparedness and response plans will definitely enhance community capacity and resilience in times of disaster. Public health nurses play a vital role in policy development, advocacy and disaster management activities in the community which will enhance their communities be better prepared for disasters.

Conflicts of Interest: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest.


  Continuing Education Series No: 35 Disaster Management Top


CE Test 35 IJCNE

OBJECTIVES

After reading the preceding article and taking this test, you should be able to :

  • Define Disaster
  • List down the types of Disaster
  • Elaborate on the levels of disaster
  • Explain on Disaster Management
  • Understand Community Preparedness in Disaster
  • Incorporate the Nursing process approach to the Disaster cycle


  1. The Curriculum for Emergency and Disaster Nursing was framed in


    1. 2007
    2. 2009
    3. 2011
    4. 2013


  2. Psychosocial support is primarily initiated in the following phase of disaster


    1. Mitigation
    2. Preparedness
    3. Response
    4. Rehabilitation


  3. The half concentric circles in the APEDNN logo represents


    1. Earth
    2. Tsunami
    3. Shelter and safety
    4. Global warning symbol for earthquake


  4. Collaborative Research Action Framework for Strengthening Capacities in Disaster emerged in


    1. Thailand
    2. Malaysia
    3. China
    4. India


  5. The probability of disaster occurrence is higher when


    1. Hazard is more and capacity to reduce the risk is more
    2. Hazard is less and resources are more
    3. Vulnerability is more and resources are less
    4. Vulnerability is less and capacity to reduce the risk is more


  6. Which of the following is considered as a disaster?


    1. An event where seven individuals were killed
    2. An event where two hundred individuals were affected
    3. An event of biohazard exposure in a lab
    4. An event where thousands of people gathered


  7. Rock fall is an example of the following type of disaster


    1. Geophysical
    2. Biological
    3. Meteorological
    4. Climatological


  8. A bus accident that occurs in the hilly road is an example of which level of disaster?


    1. Level 0
    2. Level 1
    3. Level 2
    4. Level 3


  9. Community preparedness starts with


    1. Educating the public
    2. Estimating the resources
    3. Caring of vulnerable population
    4. Hazard identification


  10. Assessment on usage of land, the materials used for housing and the type of house is done as part of


    1. Hazard identification
    2. Preparation of community profile
    3. Resource mapping
    4. Capacity building


  11. START is


    1. Simple Triage And Rapid Treatment
    2. Small Triage And Rapid Treatment
    3. Start Treatment And Rapid Transport
    4. Simple Treatment and Rescue Therapy


  12. During a disaster, Mr. Τ is having bruises everywhere but he is mobile and is able to walk. Nurse will triage him as


    1. Black
    2. Yellow
    3. Red
    4. Green


  13. When a patient is not responding to shakes and shouts from a rescuer, what should the triage nurse do?


    1. Call for help
    2. Place the patient in lateral position
    3. Tag the patient as black
    4. Tag the patient as red


  14. While shifting to ambulance, which patients will be given the least priority in a disaster?


    1. Black
    2. Red
    3. Yellow
    4. Green


  15. Rumination is an example of


    1. Emotional problems
    2. Cognitive problems
    3. Behavioural problems
    4. Psychosomatic problems


  16. Which is not a part of six R’s in disaster rehabilitation?


    1. Relief
    2. Resilience
    3. Recovery
    4. Reinforcement


  17. The following activity is an example of “whole of health’ principle


    1. Involvement of multiple agencies such as fire department, NGOs
    2. Updating on recent trends in mass casualty management
    3. Addressing communicable and non communicable diseases during disaster
    4. Setting up of policies and procedures at local level


  18. Following are the examples of Mass Casualty Incidents EXCEPT


    1. Food poisoning incident at a village festival
    2. Dengue outbreak in Tamil Nadu
    3. Radioactive leak in atomic plant
    4. Earthquake


  19. Arrange the priorities of Sendai framework from highest to lowest


    1. Structural and non-structural measures with public and private investment


    2. Defining vulnerability, hazard characteristics, capacity


    3. Incorporating disaster risk strategies in building back better


    4. Strengthening disaster risk governance at all levels


      1. 1, 2, 3, 4
      2. 4, 1, 3, 2
      3. 2, 4, 1,3
      4. 3, 1, 4, 3


  20. Identify the false statement related to disaster


    1. Unpredictability is one of the feature of disaster
    2. Gastric ulcer is one the health outcomes of disaster
    3. Mitigation is a part of risk reduction phase
    4. Identifying the medical facilities is a part of resource mapping


CE Test No : 35 Disaster Management

Select the best answer and shade the circle against the suitable alphabet in the answer form provided.

ANSWER FORM



Evaluation : Listed below are statements about the CNE on “Disaster Management” Please circle the number that best indicates your response.

Strongly Disagree Disagree Agree Strongly Agree

The stated objectives were met 1 2 3 4

The content was clearly presented 1 2 3 4

The content was related to the objectives 1 2 3 4

The test questions were clearly stated 1 2 3 4

NAME:_________

PRESENT MAILING ADDRESS: ___________

Cut out or photocopy this form, fill and mail before June 31, 2019 to The Editor-in-Chief IJCNE, College of Nursing, CMC, Vellore - 632 004, along with a Demand Draft for Rs. 100/- (Rupees hundred only), drawn in favour of CMC, Vellore Association. A certificate will be awarded to all the participants and a merit certificate to those who secure marks 80% and above. Participants who secure 100% will be awarded one issuefree subscription of IJCNE.



 
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Association of Public Health Nurses. (2014). The role of the public health nurse in disaster preparedness, response, and recovery. Retrieved from http:// www.achne.org/files/public/APHN_RoleOfPHNinDi sasterPRR_FINALJanl4.pdf  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Basu, M., Ghosh, S., Jana, Α., Bandyopadhyay, S., & Singh, R. (2017). Resource mapping during a natural disaster: A case study on the 2015 Nepal earthquake. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 24, 24-31.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Emergency Events Database of International Disasters. (2009a). Disaster definition. Retrieved from https://www.emdat.be/  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Emergency Events Database of International Disasters. (2009b). Disaster general classification. Retrieved from https://www.emdat.be/classification  Back to cited text no. 4
    
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High Powered Committee on Disaster Management. (1999). HPC report. Retrieved from https:// www.prevention web.net/files/1633_ch3 .pdf  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Khan, H., Vasilescu, L. G, & Khan, A. (2008). Disaster management cycle: A theoretical approach. Journal of Management and Marketing, 6(1), 43-50.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
March, G. (2002). Natural disasters and the impacts on health. Retrieved from http://www.eird.org/isdr-biblio /PDF /Natural %20disasters %20and% 20the% 20impacts.pdf  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Ministry of Home Affairs. (2005). The Disaster Management act. Retrieved from https://mha.gov.in/acts  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. (2016). Draft disaster management plan. Retr  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
ieved from http://dm.mcgm.gov.in/draft-dmplan  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Municipal Corporation of Greater Mumbai. (2017). Disaster management cycle. Retrieved from http:// dm.mcgm.gov.in/diaster-management-cycle  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
National Disaster Management Authority. (2009). National policy on disaster management 2009. Retrieved from https://ndma.gov.in/images/guidelines/national-dm- policy2009.pdf  Back to cited text no. 12
    
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National Disaster Management Authority. (2016). A publication of the national disaster management authority, Government of India. Retrieved from https:// ndma.gov.in /images/ policyplan/ dmplan/ National%20Disaster%20Management%20Planú/o20 May%202016.pdf  Back to cited text no. 13
    
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Park, J. E., & Park, K. (2015). Essentials of community health nursing. Jabalpur: Banarsidas Bhanot.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
The International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. (2017). Disaster preparedness: Working with communities to prepare for disasters and reduce their impact. Retrieved from https:// media.ifrc.org /ifrc/what-we-do/disaster-and-crisis-management /disaster-preparedness/  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
U.S Department of Health and Human Services. (2018). START Adult Triage Algorithm. Retrieved from https://www.remm.nlm.gov/startadult.htm  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
United National International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction. (2009). Disaster risk reduction. Retrieved from https://www.unisdr.org/files/7817_ UNISDRTerminologyEnglish.pdf  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Veenema, T. G. (2019). Disaster nursing and emergency preparedness. Newyork: Springer Publishing Company.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Waeckerle, J.F. (1999). Disaster planning and response. Retrieved from https: //www.nejm.org / doi /full/10.1056/NEJM199103213241206  Back to cited text no. 19
    
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Yadav, D. K., & Barve, A. (2014). Role of capacity building in disaster preparedness: A case of Cyclone Phailin. Proceedings of SOM, 2014.  Back to cited text no. 20
    


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  In this article
Abstract
Introduction
Definitions
Levels of Disaster
Effects of Disaster
Disaster Management
I. Risk Reductio...
II. Crisis Manag...
Community Prepar...
Community Respon...
Public Health Nu...
Conclusion
Continuing Educa...
References
Article Figures
Article Tables

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